by : Gaung Zelina
Ancient greek period is the period when the theory (of the state) was born as an ancient theory and at the same time the early days of implementation or application of the theory. It can be seen by the existence of several ancient greek philoshopers such as Socrates, Plato, Aristoles, Epicurus, and Zeno.
Socrates, the originator of democracy theory.
According to the opinion of Socrates, the state is not merely an objective necessity, that comes from the human character. While the duty is to create a state of law, which should be done by leaders, or rulers are chosen carefully by the people. Then summed the democratic thoughts.
Platothe originator of idealism theory, said that the origin of the state is due to the many needs and desires of human life and human beings are not able to meet all the needs and desires. Therefore then humans work together and get the division of tasks within its capabilities to meet their needs. Country is one big family, unity, and therefore the state should be able to maintain itself. In order to maintain itself so the extensive of a country should be measured. A country can nott have an unknown vast.
Relating to the origin of the state, it can be a parallel line between the nature of the state with human nature. This eventually raises three classes in the state utopia (ideal-ethical), namely:
- The Rulers is a special class of educated employees who are leaders of countries striving for perfection. The rulers called the Philosopher King. Therefore, according to Plato, the country must be led by people who are wise.
- The Guardians, namely those who organize security, public order and safety of the state.
- The Workers, namely those that guarantee the availability of food for the ruling class and the state guards
Aristotle,the originator of realism,the state is the family unit is the incorporation of the family into a larger group, the group was joined again to the village, and the village is joined again, and so on. And in its highest form, and whose objective was varied, with the gradual unity it grow and eventually reach its shape as a state.
In his opinion on the state, Aristotle says that the state is a unity that aim to achieve the highest good is the perfection of man as a member of the State. Understand that put the interests of the State or society was called collectivisme.
Epicurus as the originator of individualism theory, considers that the elements or parts that really matters is not the state or society, but it is the individuals themselves as members of society. Even the existence of the country is to meet the interests of the individuals themselves. Individual as atoom and is the most important part, thus, this theory is also called as atoomisme theory.
State according to Epicurus is the result of human actions, which was created to hold interests of its members.
Zeno, the universalism theory originator, strongly opposed to Epicurus’s theory which originates in humans as atoms and his individualistic view of life while Zeno’s are universalistic. The universalism includes not only the Greeks only but the whole human being and it is psychological.
Zeno’s theory has 2 characthers :
- People who feel empty in a society that is undergoing a social-ethical depravity.
- Showing the way out of the depravity of society as well as the collapse of the state with minimum ethical requirements
Soehino, Ilmu Negara (Yogyakarta: Liberty, 1998). pg 21
Ibid, pg 29